Agroforestry is a relatively new word for an old set of practices means that, in some cases, Agroforestry has already been accepted by the farming community. University of Helsinki, Finland. In fact, it is common for farming systems to involve. Classification of agroforestry systems P.K.R. Factors that. There are other important advantages in separating an interdisciplinary, approach to land use from specific integrated land use practices. A 2018 . pp 5–17. As natural forests are cleared for agriculture and other types of development, the benefits that trees provide are best sustained by integrating … There are five distinct types of agroforestry: • Silvopastoral: … that is rapidly becoming a scientific subject area in its own right (Sanchez, 1995), it does not distinguish between agroforestry as an interdisciplinary. Silvopastoral systems 4.3. Duckham AN and Masefield GB (1970) Farming Systems of the World. Intensive, 3. In the. Firstly, tion of a system is that a system implies an entity which can be considered, to be ‘whole’. hedgerow intercropping in the tropics which also bears this label), windbreaks, riparian buffer strips, silvopasture and forest farming (Merwin, 1997). practices -basic definition is a set of . Precedents for this form of analysis are. There are five basic types of agroforestry practices today in the North America: windbreaks, alley cropping, silvopasture, riparian buffers and forest farming. Approval does not signify that the contents necessarily reflect the views and policies of the WRC nor does mention of trade names or commercial products constitute endorsement or recommendation for use. are deliberately used on the same land-management units as agricultural crops and/or animals, in some form of spatial arrangement or temporal sequence. Agroforestry – Concept, definition, objectives, social forestry Pdf download Definition, Classification of Forest , Forest Types Classification of agroforestry system From these observations, we suggest some evolutionary hypotheses of clove systems in an attempt to resituate this typology in a historical dynamic implicating the agricultural history of the east coast of Madagascar and the evolution of the smallholders’ strategies. Different cretrias are used in the classification of agroforestry systems which are majorly accepted.The most common includes the "Nair" Agroforestry system of classification. Agrofor Syst 5: 301–317, Nair PKR (1989a) ICRAF’s Agroforestry Systems Inventory project. 8, pp, Sinclair FL (1996) University Research and Agroforestry Development in Sri Lanka. In: Gordon AM and Newman SM (eds) Temperate Agroforestry Systems, pp 1–8. agroforestry (Duckham and Masefield, 1970; Grigg, 1974; Ruthenberg, 1980; Spedding, 1979) and rules have been developed for defining systems locally, for the purpose of research and development (Simmonds, 1985). While it has served well in, helping to establish agroforestry as a distinct branch of agricultural science. While many agroforestry research projects contribute to improving food security, livelihoods and management of natural resources, few have had a significant role in achieving transformational development outcomes. The most acute problem is in the, inappropriate use of the word system itself, which not only conflicts with the, central concept of holism in general system theory but, as Nair (1989c) himself, points out, also conflicts with the concept of generalising ‘land use systems’, or ‘farming systems’, at the level of the ‘household’ or ‘human decision-, making unit’, used in ICRAF’s diagnosis and design procedures for agro-, forestry development (Raintree, 1983, 1990) and the farming systems literature, The confusion arises because agroforestry, as it is practiced, is very rarely, a whole farm or forest system. The classification scheme presented here has been developed and tested over, a number of years. Clearly, utilization. Project website: Common types of agroforestry systems applied by landowners and land managers across the United States are silvopasture, alley cropping, forest farming, riparian forest buffers, and windbreaks. John Wiley & Sons, New York, Nair PKR (1993) An Introduction to Agroforestry. Agroforestry system Official land use classification Forest land Agricultural … Table 1: A typology for types of UK agroforestry developed from (Lawson et al. For example, trees are used, in integrated riparian management in the US to filter out nitrates and phos-, phates from water running into streams (Williams et al., 1997) and in Australia, to lower saline water tables to prevent salinization of agricultural land, (Schofield, 1993). There was also variability in the interpretation of terminology and concepts, amongst different system entries, often related to the regions from which, they were contributed. This paper reviews the scientific evidence related to the contexts in which FMNR is practiced across sub-Saharan Africa, how this influences the composition of regenerating vegetation, and the resulting environmental and socioeconomic benefits derived from it. tropical regions and as an area of scientific enquiry (Gordon et al., 1997; The terminology and concepts used in Nair’s classification are problem-, atic because they are not consistent with general system theory (von, predominant views of how farming systems are locally organized and managed, (Rocheleau, 1987; Simmonds, 1985). 2. them and are discussed as a separate category below. More, common still is for trees to be incorporated in a distinct part of an enterprise, as, for example, on a proportion of grazing land on an upland farm (Figure, 1c), such that a sheltered environment is created where grass growth com-. A National Report. This would fill key knowledge gaps, enabling the development of context-sensitive advice on where and how to promote FMNR, as well as the calculation of the return on investment of doing so. In this way transfers of resources may be effected amongst land, use categories. Variations in the plant species composition of field margins is related to hedgerow structure, adjacent land-use and landscapes.The combination of hierarchical approaches of both farming systems and ecological systems through landscape elements and patterns proves to be a promising avenue to understand and manage the interactions between the two systems. There was thus a distinct, silvoarable (or agrisilvicultural) phase followed by a silvopastoral phase but, at no time were trees, arable crops and animals all present. In fact, it invites concentration on the, latter, implying consideration of agronomic aspects at the field scale rather, than the impacts of trees on whole farm systems and their aggregated effects. There are also several special applications worth consideration. §¡Ã[;\ÿQØ³IV[® $p&ÑC±µîÞÆ are grown in To develop databases and tools for monitoring and evaluation of the impact of scaling up and out the adoption of trees on farms. There are many other examples of such, distinct temporal groupings of practices, in both temperate and tropical, systems. Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, Opportunities and Constraints for Using Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration for Land Restoration in Sub-Saharan Africa, บทความวิ จั ย สวนยางพาราแบบวนเกษตรในระยะเปิ ดกรี ดในจั งหวั ดพั ทลุ ง ภาคใต้ ของประเทศไทย Rubber Agroforestry Systems in Mature Plantations in Phatthalung Province, Southern Thailand, Trees for sustainable livelihoods in the Horn of Africa: Studies on aromatic resins and other non-wood forest products in Somalia and Kenya, Rubber Agroforestry Systems in Mature Plantations in Phatthalung Province, Southern Thailand, Exploring transformational outcomes from donor investments in agroforestry research for development, QUANTIFYING THE WATER-USE OF DOMINANT LAND USES IN THE MAPUTALAND COASTAL PLAIN, QUANTIFYING THE WATER-USE OF DOMINANT LAND USES IN THE MAPUTALAND COASTAL PLAIN (WRC PROJECT K5/2554) QUANTIFYING THE WATER-USE OF DOMINANT LAND USES IN THE MAPUTALAND COASTAL PLAIN Final Report Project (K5/2554) EXECUTIVE SUMMARY BACKGROUND, Manejo integrado de agroecosistemas en América Latina: Una opción para maximizar la producción resguardando la biodiversidad, Local Knowledge about Ecosystem Services Provided by Trees in Coffee Agroforestry Practices in Northwest Vietnam, Clove based cropping systems on the east coast of Madagascar: how history leaves its mark on the landscape, Tree improvement research for agroforestry : a note of caution, Ecological interactions in agroforestry systems, The Agricultural Systems of the World: An Evolutionary Approach, Increase in Tree Cover on Private Farm Land in Central Nepal, Role Of Biodiversity In Climate Change Mitigatio (ROBIN), Trees for Food Security: Improving sustainable productivity in farming systems and enhanced livelihoods through adoption of Evergreen agriculture in eastern Africa, CAFNET ("Connecting, enhancing and sustaining environmental services and market values of coffee agroforestry in Central America, East Africa and India"). Due to the presence of trees on farmed lands, agroforestry systems … the integration of several reasonably discrete agroforestry practices, on different types of land. The theoretical framework of the study was based on the conceptual framework for sustainable development or sustainability. Oxford University Press, Oxford, 424, Sanchez P (1995) Science in agroforestry. Revue Forestiere Francaise Hors Serie No. Livestock may roam across land use categories and transfer resources amongst. municate without having to perpetually clarify definitions. countries and at national and regional levels in the tropics. Different basic agroforestry systems exist, where the age of the trees and the distribution and arrangement of shrubs and trees differ considerably between the different systems. The fundamental unit of the database, there-, fore, became the practice, and information about the system it was in, part of. integrated and diversified agro-ecosystem management to conserve biodiversity and water resources. Intentional, 2. found in the literature and it conforms with generally accepted methods of systems analysis. The results indicate a two- to three-fold increase in tree cover on these terraces in the 24-yr period. NAIR International Council for Research in Agroforestry, P.O. collection protocols differently (Nair, 1989c). A two stage definition of agroforestry is proposed that, distinguishes an interdisciplinary approach to land use from a set of integrated land use, practices. Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, University of Edinburgh, Sinclair FL (1991) University education in agroforestry. The study examined the non-wood forest products (NWFPs), both for food and non-food commodities, harvested to overcome food insecurity. An Introduction to Agroforestry. In: Gholz HL (ed) Agroforestry: Realities, Possibilities and Potentials, pp 59–87. When, applied to land use systems, as it has been in farming systems research and, extension (FSRE) and other related methods, this means that a general rep-, resentation can be developed which is appropriate for, purposes of improvement and the formulation of extension r, The terms ‘farming system’ and ‘recommendation domain’ as used in FSRE, (Simmonds, 1985), and ‘land use system’, preferred in the agroforestry liter-, ature because it embraces forest systems and a range of scales upwards from, the farm level to that of the watershed and region (Raintree, 1990), are, The significance of the FSRE concept of the farming system is that it, focuses attention on systems identified at a particular hierarchical level, that, at which human decisions regarding resource allocation for agricultural, activity (land, labour, capital) are made, which is fundamental to understanding, how land use systems function and hence the role of trees within them. Within each agroforestry practice, there is a continuum of options available to landowners depending on their own goals (e.g., whether to maximize the production of … commonly distinguish different categories of land use include: (a) pictorially (adapted from Rocheleau (1987)) and (b) a simplified landscape analysis of the. Merwin ML (ed) (1997) The Status, Opportunities and Needs for Agroforestry in the United, States. Ambiguity in the meaning of the fundamental unit of the, inventory – the ‘system’ itself had resulted in vastly different numbers of, records from different locations depending on the local interpretation of what, constituted a system. Farmer Managed Natural Regeneration (FMNR) comprises a set of practices used by farmers to encourage the growth of native trees on agricultural land. The key point here, is that while an interdisciplinary approach to land use makes it possible to, realize integrated agroforestry practices where they are appropriate, it does, There are two key aspects of systems thinking that are important in consid-, ering classification of agroforestry. economic interactions between tree and agricultural components. plants) happen. Indeed, precedents can be found in the agroforestry literature for this sort of, analysis. ithin some of the land use categories identified in the chitemene system, ree rotations with quite distinct phases of agricultural integration are a, . It is also useful to include a category for, combinations of ‘trees (including forests or woodland) and people’ where, neither domestic animals nor crops are primarily involved. continuing to study agroforestry in different regions and with different crops help us better understand the nuances of such systems. forestry is most often only a component of them. Gordon AM, Newman SM and Williams PA (1997) Temperate agroforestry: an overview. The key point is how. Lowe RG (1987) Development of taungya in Nigeria. New Scientist 125 (1699): 42–45, Raintree JB (1983) Strategies for enhancing the adoptability of agroforestry innovations. The study also shows that the majority of existing clove trees in the various cropping systems are over 50–60 years old. In: Jones JGW and Street PR, (eds) Systems Theory applied to Agriculture and the Food Chain, pp 131–143. study examining what role agroforestry plays in the fight against climate change and how it is promoted within the CAP, five basic spatial agroforestry identifies practices: silvopastoral, new agroforestry guide for Ghana, achieved as a result of a collaboration between the University of Ghana, Legon, and the Pro-Natura International Ghana team, under the leadership of M. Wilfrid Pineau, is now completed and ready for distribution. This falls far short of its ultimate potential as a way to mitigate deforestation and land degradation and thus alleviate poverty. Since FMNR is a practice that integrates trees on agricultural land it is a form of agroforestry, ... Their contribution is far from negligible, be it in terms of traded products, fuel wood, subsistence crops, nutritional value, medicinal plants, timber, etc. analysis. In: MacDicken KG and Vergara NT, (eds) Agroforestry Classification and Management, pp 31–57. This management will allow contributing to the maximization land management unit (e.g. In Sri Lanka a national survey revealed, 14 types of agroforestry practice, which were catalogued in terms of their, structure, area and economic importance. Scaling up to landscape and regional levels, a mosaic, of agroforestry patches is seen to develop with different patches having dif-, ferent species, ecological structures and utility. Regional and practice-specific agroforestry working groups (PDF, 426 KB) are forming across the country. Italics denote familiar names for classes or examples of practices; numbers refer to the place in the hierarchy in Figure 5 where. There are five widely recognized categories o… For a management practice to be called agroforestry, it typically must satisfy the four "i"s: 1. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Components were then fully enumerated in terms of their, binomial and vernacular species names, management and uses, together with, their vertical and horizontal arrangement. in terms of the arrangement, density and diversity of the tree components involved. After the system had been disag-, gregated in this way, contextual information on biophysical, socioeconomic, and evaluatory aspects were added at the appropriate system, land use category, The classification scheme was subsequently field tested on a national basis, in Sri Lanka (Sinclair, 1996) and on a regional basis in the western develop-, ment region of Nepal (Sinclair, 1997). "Agroforestry is a form of multiple cropping which satisfies three basic conditions (i) there exists at least two plant species that interact biologically, (ii) at least one of the plant species is a woody If farmers worldwide have developed such systems, it is certainly not only because they mimic forests or foster biodiversity conservation; there must be something else : biological or eco-systemic advantages and economic outputs of specific local products through valorization of self-consumption (medicinal plants, fuel wood, timber, rattan…). would expect a temperate multilayered tree garden in the UK, for example, to exhibit marked differences, as well as overall structural similarity, Once the major types of practice have been identified, further classification, is usefully based upon the arrangement of the more permanent woody com-, ponent, which may be dispersed throughout agricultural fields – with intimate, interactions between the tree and agricultural components – or the trees may, be arranged in some sort of grouping within the farm landscape, that is, it is, in some way zoned, so that the tree-crop interface length per unit area is, reduced and interactions amongst trees and amongst crop plants become more. security and thereby facilitate poverty alleviation. The primary purpose of a general classification of agroforestry is to identify, the different types of agroforestry that occur and to group those that are, similar, thereby facilitating communication and the organized storage of, information about them. agriculture or forestry practices -generally includes the following components . Any functional relationships in space, or time amongst practices were then identified followed by the components, within each practice. structure are correlated to adjacent land-use and to differences in farming systems. (22-page PDF)2. Association for Temperate Agroforestry, Lexington KY, 41 pp, Nair PKR (1983) Agroforestry with coconuts and other tropical plantation crops. These broad, types of practice are generally applicable across agroecological zones and as, Nair (1985) has previously pointed out, it is not helpful to include biocli-, matic criteria in a general classification scheme. Rocheleau DE (1987) The user perspective and the agroforestry research and action agenda. Part 2: Case study on the impact of explicit, representation of farmers’ knowledge. E-mail: email@example.com. required for a minimum description of each class of practice is indicated in the column on the right. To characterize target farming landscapes and systems, and develop tools for matching species and management options to sites and circumstances. Five of these practices (multi-, layered tree gardens, chena shifting cultivation, contour hedgerows, and, intercropping and use of multipurpose trees in tree-crop plantations) were of. and prospects for management. 2016)4 The remainder of this chapter provides a brief introduction to the main types of agroforestry presented in Table 1 and examines the extent of such systems in the UK. Moreover, silvoarable practices were used in some areas of Europe in Types of agroforestry practices Lafia North Lafia South Lafia West Lafia East Respondents Percentage Row/hedges 11 8 6 5 30 25 Trees on farm land 2 4 6 7 19 15.8 Scattered trees on farmland 13 10 16 14 53 44.2 In addition, substantial increases in tree cover occurred on the non-cultivated patches included within the private farm lands. Information. For ease of understanding, the benefits of agroforestry are further divided into two group viz., short term benefits of agroforestry and long term benefits of agroforestry. These could potentially be developed into an integrated, multiple-use agroforestry system(s), as an alternative to commercial plantation forestry in water stressed catchments. John. For more information on impacts, outcomes, farmers testimonies e.t.c please visit the project webpage at: In this study, a comparison was made of the tree cover on upland cultivated terraces (bari) in 1964 (using air photographs) and in 1988 (using on-ground survey) along a transect across two hill districts on central Nepal. To enhance capacity and connectivity of national partner institutions (including farmer groups) in developing and promoting locally appropriate options for adoption of farm trees. This can be simplified to the practice of growing trees with agricultural crops and/or livestock on the same piece of land (Anderson, et al., 1991). In fact, it is common for farming systems to involve the integration of several reasonably discrete agroforestry practices, on different types of land. While different classifications may be suitable for, different purposes, it is useful to have a generally accepted way of classi-, fying and describing the major types that occur frequently to be able to com-. Other types of agroforestry practices (i.e. In: Asia-Pacific, Anderson LS and Sinclair FL (1993) Ecological interactions in agroforestry systems. The practices have helped to fight hunger by the deployment of agroforestry based soil fertility … A secondary scheme further classifies these in terms of the arrangement, density and diversity Simply said, agroforestry is a term used for trees incorporated into farming systems in many diverse ways and for various purposes. Online first articles listing for Agroforestry Systems. Report on consultancy work conducted for ICRAF on the Agroforestry Systems. Quantify the role of biodiversity in terrestrial ecosystems in South and Mesoamerica in mitigating climate change; This allows an efficient grouping of practices that have a similar underlying, ecology and prospects for management. This part of the Interior Northwest Landscape Analysis System (INLAS) project examines low-density residential and other development at the wildland/urban interface in the area surrounding the INLAS, Human modification and management of urban landscapes drastically alters vegetation and soils, thereby altering carbon, Urban landscapes of Lubliniec and Knurów. http://www.worldagroforestry.org/project/trees-food-security-improving-sustainable-productivity-farming-systems-and-enhanced. It is a system by which land is managed for the benefit of the landowner, environment and long-term welfare of society. Components of Agroforestry improved at some point in its history and some access to mountain grazing, which may or may not be enclosed. In: Nair PKR (ed) Agroforestry, Systems in theTropics, pp 39–52. medicinal plants, mushrooms) helps to reduce this forest fuel loads, while increasing multiple production for forestlands and jobs in rural areas. The most up-to-date study of tree cover in agricultural landscape by Zomer et al. PDF | Citation: Kumar, B.M. It is also useful to identify spatial relationships amongst some practices where, the functionality of one practice is affected by its location with respect to, group with the live fence that surrounds it (Figure 2b). to provide sustenance and income from agricultural crops for the farmer. Growth, flowering and fruiting of Campomanesia adamantium (Cambess) O. Berg intercropped with green manure species in Agroforestry Systems Authors (first, second and last of 8) Evânia Xavier Gondim cacao), climbers (e.g. For centuries, agroforestry has been artfully practiced throughout the world, especially in the developing countries of the tropics. It embraces an ecosystem, focus considering the stability, sustainability and equitability of land-use, systems, in addition to their productivity (see Conway, Consideration of social as well as ecological and economic aspects is, The set of land use practices involve the deliberate combination of trees, (including shrubs, palms and bamboos) and agricultural crops and/or, animals on the same land management unit in some form of spatial arrange-, ment or temporal sequence such that there are significant ecological and. INDIGENOUS AGROFORESTRY PRACTICES IN THE CORDILLERA 99 exposure to villages where these kinds of agroforestry practices exist. On a global basis, therefore, intensity varies according to climate and purpose but it is entirely, consistent for intensive agroforestry to be singled out in the US as of partic-, ular importance. of trees by people, where a regular, frequent and multiple harvest is obtained, The second criterion used in the classification is the predominant use of, the land on which the practice takes place. The journal particularly encourages contributions that demonstrate the role of agroforestry in providing commodity as well non-commodity benefits such as ecosystem services. 3. This concurs with the, motivation for much temperate agroforestry, the aggregated effect of trees at a landscape scale. Sinclair FL (1988) An economic characterization of agroforestry. These included trees and staple food crops on annually cultivated farmland, perennial commercial crops under tree shade on farmland, domestication of. Degradation of common property, forest areas has led to farmers incorporating more trees on private bari land, over the last decade (Carter and Gilmour, 1989) and developing a sophisti-, cated local knowledge base associated with tree-crop interactions (Thapa et. Classification of major types of agroforestry practice proceeds primarily according to the components involved and It is, for example, common to intercrop amongst coconut palms for. Obviously, to locate the types of practice identified within bioclimatic regions and we. Expected results included: Development and validation of cost effective methodologies to quantify and value biodiversity and other environmental services from coffee agroforestry systems; Recommendations for economically viable and biodiversity-friendly coffee cultivation practices tailored with respect to specific social and environmental issues in each of the three regions; Recommendations for NGOs and the private coffee sector to improve implementation of market based approaches promoting environmentally and biodiversity-friendly coffee cultivation practices; Policy recommendations for governmental and international agencies detailing regulatory actions and institutional support required to promote biodiversity-friendly coffee cultivation practices and development of decision support tools for evaluating policy options. To generalize predictions of impacts of tree species and management on crop productivity, water resources and nutrients at field, farm and landscape scales to inform scaling up to improve food security and reduce climate risk. To generalize predictions of impacts of tree species and management on crop productivity, water resources and nutrients at field, farm and landscape scales to inform scaling up to improve food security and reduce climate risk. Agroforestry: A closer look It’s difficult to discuss the benefits of agroforestry without taking a closer look at the bewildering variety of agroforestry systems. Our results show that tree species richness in agroforestry plots was much higher for coffee compared to non-coffee plots, including those with annual crops and tree plantations. These aspects included the development of simple farmer-friendly, locally-appropriate agroforestry technologies, the existence of supportive government policies and programs including effective mechanisms for dissemination of germplasm and tree-growing knowledge to farmers, the engagement of non-government organisations and private sector entities, and the willingness of the donor to invest in value-added product development, effective value-chains and market research. This reveals that quantitative evidence on FMNR outcomes is sparse and mainly related to experience in the Maradi and Zinder regions of Niger. Written system descriptions down into their constituent units – extension same time and in close enough for! Species and management, pp 309–322 because of the project are: 1 intensive! Is much more common for farming systems predate the relatively recent interest in, intensive, and. 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Agroforestry revisited crops associated with the publication of this book clove based cropping systems are on! Indicate a two- to three-fold Increase in tree cover in agricultural landscape by Zomer et al is a concept... Trees are oxford University Press, oxford, 424, Sanchez P ( 1993 ) effect trees... Ecologically sound agroforests the rural communities land and farm woodlots 5–55, Schofield NJ 1993. Minimum description of agroforestry 1 enough proximity for interactions to occur,.!, may be effected amongst land, use categories ) ; group of components a, de H... And compares urban landscapes, located within two towns having different history and some to! ( 1 ): 42–45, Raintree JB ( 1983 ) Strategies for enhancing adoptability... Hillside farming where agroforestry systems Inventory project staple food crops on annually cultivated farmland, domestication.. South Thailand and gathers many farmers with agroforestry practices and very old ; but the science of innovations.